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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Challenger说:“工作总会有的。公司总是在招聘,只是竞争更加残酷了。”

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华尔街、大街上和华盛顿的每一个人都在不断地忘记市场周期的基本原理。请记住:《笑傲股市》(How to Make Money in Stocks)作者、《投资者商务日报》(Investors Business Daily)的比尔?奥尼尔(Bill O'Neill)说,市场的上行周期平均为3.75年,下行周期平均为九个月。
“BlackBerry has not engaged in discussions with Samsung with respect to any possible offer to purchase BlackBerry,” the company said in a statement issued Wednesday afternoon. “BlackBerry’s policy is not to comment on rumors or speculation, and accordingly it does not intend to comment further.”
Man-made climate change is the main culprit for warming that was leading the world into “uncharted territory”, said Peter Stott, head of climate monitoring and attribution at the UK Met Office’s Hadley Centre for climate research, which released separate findings confirming the US analysis.

最终,民主政体或者民主共和国为不同观点乃至不同文化的人们提供了较为和谐地比邻而居的方式。
The curbs are having an effect. Overall non-financial outbound investment fell 36 per cent in January from a year earlier to Rmb53bn ($7.8bn), the commerce ministry said on Thursday, following a 39 per cent drop in December.
Despite the solid expansion, the yearly rate weakened to -1.4 per cent last month, from a -0.8 per cent pace in September. Economists expected production to have declined 0.9 per cent over the 12 months to October.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

武汉中心城区去化周期4个月 限购升级投资客观望

Whedon had always loved the seemingly separate ideas of sci-fi and westerns, and through The Killer Angels, he saw a way to combine them. "I wanted to play with that classic notion of the frontier," he said. "Not the people who made history, but the people history stepped on—the people for whom every act is the creation of civilization." And Whedon decided to set the frontier on a spaceship: a ship named Serenity.
就在一个月前,近200个国家的政府在巴黎达成了一项新的气候协议,目标是阻止全球气温比工业化前水平上升2摄氏度以上,最好限制在1.5摄氏度以内。
“谁来支付由此产生的成本呢?”纽约合作公寓和共管公寓委员会(Council of New York Cooperatives and Condominiums)的主席马克·J·卢森堡(Marc J. Luxemburg)表示,“这会给许多楼盘带来真真切切的成本。”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

南非总统雅各布?祖马的工资于三月份上调4%,但由于南非兰特的贬值,换算成美元后,其收入较去年实际有所下滑。
史赛克公司(Stryker)的创始人就是“翻身床”的发明者,借助这个设备,卧床的病人无需挪动身体就能改变在病床上的位置。顺其自然地,这家医疗设备制造商也向自家员工及其家属出借医疗床,分毫不收。
罗宾哈丁(Robin Harding)

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 另一条推文发表于美国总统就职日,奥巴马称:“能够为你们服务是我毕生的荣幸,你们使我成为了更好的领袖和更好的人。”
  • 水泥行业将整体退出河北平山县
  • “Obviously, a single year, even if it is a record, cannot tell us much about climate trends,” said Stefan Rahmstorf, head of earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany. “However, the fact that the warmest years on record are 2014, 2010 and 2005 clearly indicates that global warming has not ‘stopped in 1998,’ as some like to falsely claim.”
  • 保障房频唱空城计 源于政府以房为本畸形政绩观
  • 顶层设计助推绿色建材发展 节能玻璃成首选
  • 我倒是并不担心费城、凤凰城和明尼苏达的球队。他们队伍都很年轻,都在重建的路上。如果他们能够取得进步,那很好,就算没有,他们也能获得高顺位的选秀权。而篮网队则是另一个故事了,我们稍后会讨论到他们。
    10. Copyscape

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 雄安新区居民高价抛售房产 中介被警方带走, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

限购放松一周成效不明显:加药方或增剂量?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

国务院常务会议:推进国企混合所有制改革

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 10. Knighted Penguin
    “‘降温’措施(是)影响香港(住宅)地产市场的最重要问题,”莱坊估价主管林浩文(Thomas Lam)说,“这正是过去两三年里所有大型机构的方案都在关注写字楼市场的原因。”
  • 《大城小妞》(Broad City),Comedy Central,1月14日播出。伊拉纳·格雷泽(Ilana Glazer)与艾比·雅克布逊(Abbi Jacobson)带着第二季回归了,它讽刺了纽约那些大材小用而又自恋的人们生活中的故作姿态、妥协与纯粹粗俗。
    2012年,电子烟开始流行,它们的工作原理是通过加热尼古丁的液体,模拟真实的烟。很多人认为电子烟是中国的制药商韩力发明的,他说梦到自己在烟雾缭绕的蒸气中快要窒息后,发明了电子烟。他的父亲死于吸烟引起的肺癌。他自己也是一个不折不扣的瘾君子,他曾尝试使用尼古丁贴片来戒烟,但失败了。
    都柏林大学学院(UCD)迈克尔?斯墨菲特商业研究生院(Michael Smurfit Graduate School of Business)的总体进步最大,排名攀升21位至第48名。北京大学(Peking University)光华管理学院(Guanghua School of Management)重回排行榜第38名,去年该院因学员调查反馈率低而未上榜。
    如果你需要买一辆新车,你有36个可选择的品牌。每个汽车品牌都满足了不同的需求,但并不是每个品牌都适合每一位消费者。有些品牌擅长制作高性能的车,有些专注于制作家庭适用的跨界休旅车,或是专门制作豪华型轿车。
    除去这些宏大的制作,共有40位闪亮的模特走上T台。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 北京租客诉自如甲醛超标 反遭自如公司起诉“违约”
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 无管道新风系统:专为已装修入住的房屋而生

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

裘德韦伯(Jude Webber)
He said game and live-broadcast apps currently hosted by Tencent don't require real-name registration, but the company is considering establishing a platform for parents to monitor their children's behavior.
3.在戛纳,他们说英语
日前,斯坦福大学商学院(Stanford Graduate School of Business)教授彼得o库迪斯基于这场荷兰危机共同撰写了一篇文章,围绕“个人经验(而非市场信息)决定乐观、悲观以及信贷的获得与否”这种不那么科学的方法给出了现代经验。
通过ETF购买计划,日本央行间接持有约22家日本大企业10%的股权,并持有整个日本股市的3%左右。一些人批评称,这是对日本股市“事实上的国有化”。
1.Bladeless Fans
6.The Conjuring 2:The Enfield Poltergeist

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 批评人士一直急于指出,库克对新产品开发的参与度不如他前任那样高,而且当他走上舞台介绍新品时,也无法引起同样的兴奋。但库克知道自己的短处,他从健身和时尚界招揽人才,组建了一支新团队,其中包括前博柏利(Burberry)首席执行官安杰拉?阿伦茨(Angela Ahrendts),以及工业设计师马克?纽森(Marc Newson)。
  • 杭州住保房管:杭州未放松限购政策
  • Stripping out price, volumes of Chinese imports in October fell a more modest 2.6 per cent from a year earlier, according to estimates from Oxford Economics.
    2014年最佳引擎榜单的其他入选者还包括宝马5系豪华轿车和紧凑型雪佛兰科鲁兹(Cruze)所使用的涡轮增压柴油发动机,保时捷Cayman双座运动跑车的水平对置2.7升6缸发动机以及大众汽车捷达紧凑车的1.8升4缸涡轮增压发动机。
  • 个税改革红利释放 超9100万人工薪所得无需再缴纳个人所得税
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 其他国家的监管机构将以日本模式的成功或失败为借鉴。
    福特是硅谷一家软件开发公司的创始人,他认为“或许需要从根本上重建我们的经济规则”,以减轻机器人和自动化的进步带来的冲击。他提出建立保底的基本收入,即“公民红利”,作为一项根本性的补救措施。
  • v. 扩充,延伸,伸展,扩展
    Only Kobe Bryant had played in more games by age 32, and did so with fewer minutes, and that's just including regular-season games.
  • 从投资决策角度来看,2014年是有史以来最糟糕的年景之一,几乎可以说是全盘皆输。除了少数华尔街亿万富豪才玩得起的“股东积极主义”维权策略还算奏效外,没有哪种投资策略在这一年里始终灵光。
    Only 6.92 percent of Hawaiian’s flights arrived late during the past three years, almost twice as good as the runner up, Alaska Air — 11.27 percent of its flights arrived late.
  • n. 同伴,伙伴,合伙人
    11月,财新-Markit制造业采购经理人指数(PMI)从10月的51%降至50.8%,接近区分扩张和收缩的50%大关。此前,路透社(Reuters)对经济学家进行调查得出的预测中值曾预计,制造业PMI将降至50.9%。
    charter
  • WORST HABIT
    希拉里屹立不倒:希拉里·克林顿的个人履历中充满了第一:唯一一位成为美国参议员后来成为呼声很高的总统候选人后来又成为国务卿的第一夫人。现在,作为一名淡出公众视线的公民,她仍然是这个世界上最受关注和意见最受重视的女性之一。大家都打赌她会是2016年美国民主党角逐总统选举的候选人,并揣测她会是这个自由世界的下一任领袖。她并不试图平息这些议论,上个月她以估计每场20万美元的报酬进行巡回演讲,并据传签署了一份金额高达1,400万美元的售书协议。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 中国硅藻泥材料协会正式成立 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

亚马逊秘密招兵买马 智能家居项目浮出水面

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

LED民用市场正式开启 混战格局日趋稳定

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

湖北:部分项目整改不彻底 部分地方打击违规不力

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

楼市虽降温 业内:未来2年房价上涨至少50%

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • WORST HABIT
  • The capital plans to move most of its municipal departments to the suburban district of Tongzhou in 2017, the Beijing Municipal Committee announced on Wednesday.
  • 美对华钢材产品发起反倾销反补贴调查

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 数月前,18岁的安娜·费斯·卡尔森在一张艾丽莎的宣传立板边照了张相,发布到了网上,她立刻变成了网络红人。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 当你在求职布告栏比如Monster或者Indeed发布你的简历时,你现在的雇主是可有机会看到你的简历的。Foss说很多人事和经理经常在求职栏搜索职工的名字看他们是不是在找工作。
    9月份CPI录得1.6%的同比涨幅后,经济学家曾预测10月份的同比涨幅为1.5%。中国政府为今年全年设定的通胀目标为“3%左右”。
    四线及以下城市居民在收入、教育、医疗、养老方面的经济压力与国家平均水平相近,而家庭和人际关系方面的压力比二三线城市大。
  • n. 枝,杆,手杖

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • [.impre'sɑ:ri?u]
  • 住建部严控建材质量
  • Quiz

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 设计师与材料商钓“大鱼”:陪客户挑材料
  • Household substance abuse
  • 确保宏观税负稳定 房地产税改应如何推进?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

告别“激进” 房企低调控风险

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 卫浴行业新一轮涨价潮来袭
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 特普丽墙纸第4期经销商培训会圆满落幕
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

The aspiring actress is also hoping her online following will secure her an audition to appear on ABC show 'Once Upon A time' which is adding Elsa as a character next season.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

For generations, working-class whites were doubly blessed: they enjoyed privileged status based on race, as well as the fruits of broad economic growth.
Dachis says: 2011 saw a huge bounce for Dominos in brand enthusiasm from their brand relaunch which 2012 just couldn’t match. It’s a shame they can’t redesign their recipes every year.
Much joy to you in the up coming year. May the warmest wishes, happy thoughts and friendly greetings come at New Year and stay with you all the year through.
ceremony
2.Rocky
因此,D型人格的人并不是缺乏社交兴趣,而是可能对别人感兴趣,但又害怕接近别人,因为他们害怕被拒绝。
在2015年,中国电影票房销售额创历史新高,超过了440亿人民币,即68亿美元。而国产片票房在其中占据了很大一部分。
And now for the companies that lost the most love ...
汇丰银行经济学家屈宏斌表示,汇丰银行的调查结果表明中国制造业正在失去增长势头,预计中国政府会采取措施对抗经济放缓。
lure=bait诱饵-引诱(lure读:6饵,用6个诱饵引诱)

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

北京调整购房资格审核中的个税执行标准 今年起个税为零月份可看社保

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 黄金披萨中使用了进口白斯第尔顿奶酪、表面的金箔上点缀有里海俄罗斯鲟鱼子酱、法国松露和鹅肝。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 我们只把精力在应该关注的地方
  • 硅宝科技“一字万金 20万奖金”品牌广告语全国征集活动
  • 近两年P2P贷款行业迅速发展。根据E-Lending House,截至6月底,该行业未清偿贷款达2090亿元人民币。
  • “涨价潮”来势汹汹 门窗企业如何应对?
  • “Even though there is significant awareness [of the role of Fed policy], market dynamics can become unstable or unfavourable relatively easily,” he says. “Then you get into a self-reinforcing cycle of selling pressure.”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 大家居时代真的来了!经销商该如何前行?
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • [m?uld]
  • With a bit of help from Charles Dickens, let’s take a look back at the year in which almost nothing worked:

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

中央经济工作会议:我国形成了世界上人口最多的中等收入群体

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